Public schools at every level paint the economy as merely a machine needing tinkering. There is no free market or Austrian human action perspective. Thus, economics departments are all about modeling and mathematics. This system left Boyes with a PhD in Economics, but with no clue about the real economy. Do prospective students understand this? Are they naïve about what life is like in academia? Knowing what he knows now, would Boyes still follow that high math track to an economics PhD?